» » Устная тема «Строительство и Архитектура» представляет собой одну из основных и самых необходимых тем в сфере профессионального общения

Устная тема «Строительство и Архитектура» представляет собой одну из основных и самых необходимых тем в сфере профессионального общения

Устная тема «Строительство и Архитектура» представляет собой одну из основных и самых необходимых тем в сфере профессионального общенияУстная тема «Строительство и Архитектура» представляет собой одну из основных и самых необходимых тем в сфере профессионального общения.

Введение Устная тема «Строительство и Архитектура» представляет собой одну из основных и самых необходимых тем в сфере профессионального общения.

Цель данного учебно-методического пособия – подготовить будущих специалистов в сфере строительства к чтению и переводу специальной литературы и обсуждению профессиональных тем на английском языке. В разработке содержатся тексты по истории строительства и архитектуры, способствующие усвоению тематического словарного минимума и формирующие умение пользоваться им в процессе общения по данной теме.

Также представлены упражнения для развития умений в чтении и письме, касающихся сферы строительства, стимулирующие интерес студентов и их творческую активность.

Study the words and translate the sentences. Learn the words.

1. to depend on (upon) – зависеть от.

After school the she started working as she didn’t want to depend on her parents.

2. wood – 1) лес, роща; 2) дерево ( материал), древесина.

Though it was dark they had to go through the wood.

The houses in the country are made of wood.

3. earth – земля, земной шар.

The moon goes around the earth and the earth goes around the sun.

4. top – верхушка, вершина.

The top of the mountain was covered with snow.

5. region – область.

There are many woods in our region.

A path paved with stone went to the garden.

He left without saying good-bye.

They were still working when we left.

9. to appear – 1) появляться; 2) казаться.

The ship appeared on the horizon.

It appears to me that you are right.

10. shallow – мелкий.

In summer some rivers become very shallow.

11. hole – дыра, отверстие.

There was a big hole in the roof of the old house.

The roof of the house was painted green.

13. brick – кирпич.

The art of brickmaking dates back to very early times.

14. to put up – 1)поднимать; 2) возводить.

The sportsmen put up the flag at the top of the mountain.

A new bridge was put up across the river.

15. above – над, выше.

Our parents live in the flat above.

16. to borrow – 1) брать взаймы; 2) заимствовать.

He often borrows money from his friends.

The Romans borrowed much from the Greeks.

17 . flat – 1) плоский; 2) квартира.

In Asia one can see many houses with flat roofs.

They have just move into a new comfortable flat.

18. to arouse – пробуждать, вызывать.

The exhibition of old cars aroused great interest.

19. direction – направление.

They were driving in the direction of the forest.

20. middle – середина.

There was a table right in the middle of the room.

21. in turn – по очереди; в свою очередь.

The teacher called out the students in turn.

22 . thus – таким образом.

The information thus collected helped to solve the mystery of this crime.

23. strength – 1) сила; 2) прoчность.

He is a man of great strength.

They devoted a new synthetic material of great strength.

24. unfortunately – к сожалению.

Unfortunately they were out when we called.

25. thick – 1) толстый; 2) густой.

The people were safe behind the thick walls of the house.

They were going through a thick forest.

26. to serve – служить.

Young men have to serve in the army.

27. to destroy – разрушать.

Minsk was almost completely destroyed during the war.

28. effort – усилие.

Please make an effort to arrive on time.

29. to restore – реставрировать.

Many fine old buildings were restored.

30. shortage – нехватка, недостаток.

Among other difficulties the expedition had food shortage.

31. unit – 1) единица; 2) агрегат, узел.

The metre is a unite of length and the gramme is a unite of weight.

32. advanced – передовой.

Advanced technologies must be used to increase the scale of production.

33. to assemble – собирать(ся.

He is a good engineer. He has assembled a motor-car of his own.

34. advantage – преимущество.

Living in a big town has many advantages.

35. to cut – 1) резать; 2) сокращать.

Glass is usually cut with a diamond.

The company has cut the workforce by half.

36. to extend – удлинять.

According to the new plan the railway will be extended as far as the seaport.

37. to heat – отапливать.

In England plenty of houses are heated with coal.

38. furthermore – кроме того, к тому же.

They knew the painting was a forgery ( подделка ). Furthermore, they knew who had painted it.

39. duration – продолжительность.

He will be in hospital for the duration of the school year.

40. expensive – дорогой.

This car is very expensive.

41. huge – огромный.

He is a man of huge strength.

42. limestone slab – известняковая плита.

The floor was covered with limestone slabs.

43. site – строительная площадка.

Building parts are assembled at a site.

Hut was the first house of people who lived where there was much wood.

45. slant – наклонный.

The Greeks made the roof slant in two directions from the middle.

46. durable - прочный.

The walls of the castle were very durable.

47. tie – связывать.

Men tied together the tops of several trees.

48. shape – 1) форма; 2) придавать вид.

Window usually has rectangular ( прямоугольный ) shape.

49. iron – железо.

50. reinforced concrete - железобетон.

TEXT 1 Architecture is both science and art. Our life, our mood sometimes depend on the buildings around us. Read the text about the history of architecture.

1. Man has always been a builder. The kind of house he built depended upon the climate, upon his enemies, and upon the building materials at hand. The first houses in many parts of the world were made of wood, for in those days the greater part of the earth was covered with forests. Men tied together the tops of several trees and covered them with the skins of animals or with leaves and grass. So, a tent or hut, was the first house of the primitive people who lived where there was much wood.

In other regions the most convenient building material was stone. Men began building houses out of stone very long ago. Although they were built without cement, the remains of a few of them still exist.

It appears that the most ancient homes on the territory of Russia were earthen houses. One such home was discovered near Voronezh in 1927. It consisted of a shallow hole of oval shape. The floor was covered with limestone slabs. The roof had been conical and stood on poles covered by branches or animal skins. Such dwelling existed in that part of the country in the Upper Paleolithic Period (from 40,000 to 12,000 years ago.

2. The ancient Egyptians built very simple houses, by present standards. Having dried the bricks in the sun, they put up four walls, and above these they placed a flat roof. The roof was flat because there was very little rain in Egypt. Although their buildings were simple in construction, the Egyptian art of building was very beautiful. Their pyramids and monuments, sphinxes and palaces arouse our admiration to this day. An important part in the history of building has been played by the column, and it was ancient Egypt that gave the world its first lesson in the art of making columns. The Greeks learned much from Egypt. But they didn’t borrow the flat roof. They built the slanting roof because there was much rain in their country. The Greeks made the roof slant in two directions from the middle. They also improved on Egypt’s columns and soon became the teachers of the world in column making.

The Romans, in turn, learned much from the Greeks. First of all they borrowed the slanting roof and the columns. But they added the arch, thus adding much strength and beauty to their buildings.

3. In ancient Russia architecture flourished for the first time in Kiev Russ. Unfortunately only a few of the church buildings of that period have remained, among them the famous Cathedral of St. Sophia, the cornerstone of which was laid in 1037 to commemorate the victory over Pechenegs. The churches of that time were strong buildings with thick walls and small windows. They often had to serve as fortresses against enemy invasions. During the Second World War the finest ancient architectural monuments were destroyed and great effort has got into restoring them.

4. In the Middle Ages in Europe numerous wars between different nations caused great damages to the houses of crowded Medieval towns. Therefore many monarchs and nobles built castles as a form of defence. Those castles had very strong walls, narrow windows and projecting fortifications.

5. The Renaissance, which was a European movement, lasted roughly from the 14 th to the 17 th century. During this Period, art and sciences underwent great changes. In architecture these changes were marked by a return to classical forms and proportions of ancient Roman buildings.

6. Buildings of the 19 th century are characterized by the use of new materials and by a great diversity of architectural styles. From the end of the 18 th century iron and steel became widely used as alternatives to wood, for by that time many countries experienced shortage of this material. Later the Industrial Revolution brought mass-production of building parts which were manufactured at a factory and then simply assembled at a site.

7. The 20 th century is notable for widespread use of steel – reinforced concrete. Huge reinforced concrete units manufactured in heated factory premises are brought to the site which becomes something like an assembly shop. This technique has many advantages over other building methods. First of all it cuts the labour needed for building by 60 to 70 % and extends the building season what is very important for countries where winter lasts for many months. Furthermore the duration of building is greatly cut. All this makes the building process less expensive and much less laborious.

Architecture of the 20 th century is characterized by very high buildings – particularly skyscrapers – and by great diversity of styles which completely differ from those in the past.


damage – повреждение.

heated factory premises – отапливаемое заводское помещение.

assembly shop – сборочный цех.

skyscraper – небоскрёб.

Give brief description of every period of the history of architecture.

Ask 10 special questions to the text.

Choose right translation of the following words.

-огромный a) advanced; b) flat; c) huge; d) convenient.

-продолжительность a) advantage; b) duration; c) establishment; d) length.

-дорогой a) main; b) concrete; c) previous; d) expensive.

-кроме того a) in turn; b) furthermore; c) without; d) still.

-отапливать a) to heat; b) to tie; c) to increase; d) to extend.

-главный a) shallow; b) recent; c) main; d) huge.

-преимущество a) shortage; b) strength; c) effort; d) advantage.

-расширять a) to assemble; b) to expect; c) to extend; d) to rise.

-сокращать a) to perform; b) to cut; c) to beat; d) to shake.

-единица a) place; b) unite; c) shape; d) hole.

-собирать a) to put up; b) to solve; c) to wear; d) to assemble.

-передовой a) advanced; b) expensive; c) ordinary; d) similar.

-нехватка a) duration; b) damage; c) shortage; d) strength.

-связывать a) to cut; b) to cover; c) to arouse; d) to tie.

-толпа a) part; b) piece; c) crowd; d) unite Exercise 2.

скачать dle 11.3

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